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Your risk for lung cancer is unique to you. Use our Risk Navigator Tool to get more information about your risk.
Smoking is by far the biggest risk factor, causing 80-85% of lung cancer in the U.S. The degree of risk increases with the number of years the person smoked and the number of packs a day the person smoked. The 2010 Surgeon General’s report How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease states, “There is no risk-free level of tobacco smoke.” Tobacco smoke causes changes in cells that can lead to cancer. In the lungs, these changes can lead to lung cancer. To reduce your risk, don’t start smoking. If you smoke, quit. Quitting smoking improves your life in many ways and we encourage current smokers to find the best way for to quit. If you (or a loved one) have been diagnosed with lung cancer and smoke, continuing to smoke can, among other things, interfere with the way treatments work and make side effects worse. Click here to find out more.
What about pipes, cigars, and marijuana?There is no safe tobacco product. All tobacco contains nicotine and other cancer-causing substances. According to the National Cancer Institute, "Overall, lung cancer risks for cigar smokers may be similar to those seen in cigarette smokers once they are adjusted for differences in level of inhalation and quantity of tobacco smoked per day." Pipe smoking is linked to lung cancer but the risk appears to be lower in people who only smoke pipes do not also smoke cigarettes. Not all studies have found a link between marijuana use and lung cancer. A 2006 review of studies, The Association Between Marijuana Smoking and Lung Cancer: A systemic review , concluded there is a “biological plausibility for the enhanced risk of lung cancer associated with marijuana."
In addition to tobacco use, other risk factors for lung cancer include:
Radon is an invisible, odorless, tasteless radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil and rocks. Exposure to radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer in the United States but the Environmental Protection Agency estimates that radon is the leading cause of lung cancer in never smokers. Find out more at the Environmental Protection Agency’s radon website.
Asbestos is a mineral fiber that has been used in the manufacture of many products for decades, including insulation and tiles. No safe level of asbestos exposure has been identified. Most exposure is occupational (job-related) and has been heavily concentrated in the mechanical, construction, and shipbuilding industries. However, many buildings and schools today still contain products made of asbestos. Asbestos exposure increases the risk of lung cancer and also of developing mesothelioma, a cancer of the lining of organs that can start in the lungs but also the abdomen, heart, and chest. Find out more about asbestos and mesothelioma at the Mesothelioma Applied Research Foundation.
Regular exposure to smoke from others’ cigarettes can increase lung cancer risk 20-30% compared to those not exposed. Secondhand smoke is estimated to cause over 3000 lung cancer deaths a year. Find out more from the National Cancer Institute’s Secondhand Smoke and Cancer fact sheet.
Smoking rates for those in the military are higher than in the general population, but past and present military service also increases the risk for developing lung cancer. Estimates are that the rate of lung cancer among veterans may be twice that of the general population. Active duty military continue to be exposed to agents that are likely to increase their future risk as well. Find out more at the Veteran’s Health Council website.
Exposures unique to veterans that increase risk of lung cancer include: asbestos exposure onboard ships, in shipyards, and in submarines; defoliants and herbicides containing dioxin such as Agent Orange and others used to defoliate the Demilitarized Zone, as well as asbestos exposure onboard ships, in shipyards, and in submarines; fuel exhausts, smoke from burning oil wells, kerosene cookers and heaters in enclosed tents, and other battlefield emissions. Research continues on those topics, as well as the impact of depleted uranium on lung cancer risk.
Increasing age is a risk factor for many cancers, including lung cancer. The average age in the United States for a lung cancer diagnosis is around 70 years of age. About 10% of lung cancer cases occur in people younger than 50 years old.
Environmental chemicals including arsenic, beryllium ,air pollution from vehicle and diesel exhaust, and industrial and residential emissions, as well as those from power plants.
Industrial chemicals - There is evidence that exposure to chemicals in certain occupations or industries increases the risk for lung cancer. These include: aluminum and coke production; hairdresser and barbers; underground hematite mining with radon exposure; iron and steel founding; painters; production of art glass, glass containers, and pressed ware; rubber industry. Find out about occupational carcinogens by reading Listing Occupational Carcinogens, published in the November 2004 edition of Environmental Health Perspectives.
A study investigating if the use of beta-carotene supplements would decrease lung cancer risk in those at high risk (current smokers and asbestos-exposed workers) instead found the opposite. The use of beta carotene supplements actually increased the number of lung cancer diagnoses (and death from lung cancer) for those already at high risk for the disease. It is important to note that foods containing beta-carotene are thought to decrease risk for developing lung cancer, as is increasing fruit consumption.
Even among never smokers, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and asthma may increase lung cancer risk by 50-100%. Also, as more people survive cancer, we are learning more about long term effects of radiation treatment to the chest. In breast cancer survivors, lung cancer risk was greater for those who received post-mastectomy radiation, for the lung on the same side as the initial breast cancer. Risk increases with the radiation dose received. There does not appear to be the same risk for newer, post-lumpectomy breast radiation treatment. Smoking seems to increase the radiation-related lung cancer risk. In Hodgkin’s Disease survivors, increased risk for lung cancer is significantly linked to the doses of radiation used in treatment. As in breast cancer, risk increases with the radiation dose received.
Studies suggest that adults who have or had a fully related parent or sibling with lung cancer, especially one who was diagnosed before age 50 or who have multiple relatives diagnosed are at increased risk for lung cancer.
Research is underway to understand more about the family link to lung cancer. If you have at least one biologically-related relative diagnosed with lung cancer, please consider joining the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Family Lung Cancer Study. There is no cost to participate and you do not have to live in the Cincinnati area to join.
If you have been diagnosed with lung cancer or have two or more relatives who have been diagnosed, you may be eligible to participate in the LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans School of Medicine's Lung Cancer Study. There is no cost to participate and you do not have to live in the New Orleans area to join.